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Instruction for Authors


Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (TRD) gives priority to high-quality academic experimental or clinical research that will contribute to the development of knowledge of the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. Manuscripts types include original articles, reviews, images of interest, editorials, and letters to the editor. The journal is issued on the first day of the January, April, July, October.

Ethical guidelines for research and publication

All work must conform to the ethical guidelines specified on Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (http://www.icmje.org).

Research involving human subjects must conform to the ethical guidelines specified by the Declaration of Helsinki (http://www.bioscience.org/guides/declhels.htm). It is recommended that any research dealing with a clinical trial be registered with a primary national clinical trial registration site such as http://ncrc.cdc.go.kr/cris, or other sites accredited by the WHO or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The relevant studies must have been approved by the Institutional Ethics Board or Institutional Review Board of each institution. It should also be noted, where applicable, that study subjects provided written informed consent. In cases of animal experimental studies, the experimental procedure must conform to the guidelines of the Institutional Ethics Board or those specified on the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The editorial board reserves the right to require authors to submit copies of informed consent forms and a letter of the approval signed by the Institutional Ethics Board, if applicable.

Disclosure of conflict of interest

All authors are required to upload disclosure forms when their manuscript is submitted to the Journal. Please upload these forms along with your other manuscript files, choosing File Designation: "Disclosure of Financial Interest Form(S)." Disclosure form shall be same with ICMJE Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest (http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf). When a manuscript is accepted for publication, TRD will determine the part(s) of an author's disclosure that will be published with the manuscript.

Originality and duplicate publication

Manuscripts containing content that was previously published in other journals will not be considered. Manuscripts may not be submitted simultaneously to any other journal. On the cover letter, authors should make a statement about the originality of their work and disclose previous presentations, reports, or publications that contain any material that appears in the manuscript. If there is a similar or supplemental publication, the authors should provide a copy for the Editors' review.

With regard to all matters associated with research ethics, such as ethical guidelines and plagiarism/duplicate publication/scientific misconduct, the review and processing procedures are based on 'Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals' (http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_ethics.html) and 'Guidelines on Good Publication' (http://www.publicationethics.org.uk/guidelines).

Submission of manuscripts

All manuscripts must be submitted at the TRD e-submission website, http://submit.e-trd.org. Only manuscripts submitted through the web site will be considered for review.

Review process

The Editor-in-Chief and an Associate Editor generally review the submitted manuscripts. Then the selected manuscripts are reviewed by usually two reviewers. Upon completion of the review, notification of acceptance or rejection will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail. If a revised version is requested, it should be returned no later than 90 days after notification. A delayed revised article will be treated as a new manuscript.

Manuscript preparation

All materials must be written in clear, appropriate English. The manuscript must be written in 12-point font with double-line spacing and at least 2.5-cm margins on A4 size paper using Microsoft Word.

All pages should be numbered consecutively starting with the title page as page 1. Line numbers (i.e., 1, 2, 3 etc.) should be displayed in the left-hand margin of the manuscript file. Line numbering can be added from the File/Page Setup menu of word processing programs and should be continuous throughout the manuscript file. Do not restart numbering from each page.

A. Original Articles

The total length should not exceed 5,000 words (excluding the abstract, references, and table/figure legends). The total number of tables and figures should be fewer than 10.

Manuscripts should begin with the title page followed by an abstract and key words, introduction, methods, results, discussion, conflicts of interest, acknowledgments, references (up to 40 references), tables and/or figures.

Acronyms should be avoided where possible. Where a complex or cumbersome term or phrase is repeatedly used, however, it should be abbreviated, preferably using standard abbreviations. The abbreviation should be appear in parentheses following the first use of the term or phrase and can then be used in the remainder of the text.

Human names, regional names and other proper nouns should be used in their original form. Arabic numerals should be used. Laboratory measurements should be expressed in SI (Standard International) units. A single space is usually required between the numeral and the unit; no space is inserted for % and ˚C.

• Title page

The title page should contain the following information: (1) title (less than 150 characters, including spaces); (2) author list (first name, middle name, and last name); (3) name of the institutions at which the work was performed; (4) name, address, telephone, fax number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author; (5) running title (less than 50 characters, including spaces).

• Abstract and Keywords

A structured abstract of up to 250 words should be provided, containing categories such as Background, Methods, Results and Conclusions. The objectives, observations and main results should be provided.

Three to ten keywords, reflecting the contents of the manuscript, should be included. Authors should use MeSH (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh) terms from Index Medicus. The first character of each word should be in upper case.

• Introduction

Relevant background information should be briefly set out and the objectives of the study should be clearly and concisely stated.

• Materials and Methods

This section should be detailed, and should be presented in a structured format, including study plan, materials and methods used. Statistical methods used for data analysis should be provided. In the case of clinical trials, authentication and approval from the Institutional Review Board should be specified.

For equipment and reagents, the manufacturer, city and country should be provided in parentheses.

• Discussion

A detailed description of the study results should be arranged in a logical manner. In the case of experimental studies, the bulk of the data should be presented in figures and tables. The contents of figures and tables should not be repeated in the main text. However, the main findings should be presented in the main text, with emphasis on the important trends, statistical significance and key points.

• Results

The significance and implications of novel and important findings should be clearly and concisely presented, without unnecessary duplication of results. Based on this argument, plausible hypotheses could be proposed if warranted. Conclusions should refer to the study objectives.

• Conflicts of Interest

Any potential conflicts of interest must be disclosed in this section. If there are no potential financial conflicts of interest, the following statement should be added: "No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported."

• Acknowledgements

Co-workers and others who contributed significantly to the current study, but were not co-authors, should be mentioned in the acknowledgements. All sources of financial and other support should also be stated.

• References

References should be ordered according to order of appearance in the text, using Vancouver style. Journal abbreviations should follow Index Medicus. Unpublished data should preferably not be cited. Where this is unavoidable, however, the source should be placed in parentheses in the main text and such expressions as “personal opinion exchange” or “unpublished data” should be used.

* The citation superscript style is as follows:
Lee1 is --. -- 2,3-5. -- does1,2,

* Style for reference list:

1) Journal citations
Drazen JM, Israel E, Boushey HA, Chinchilli VM, Fahy JV, Fish JE, et al. Comparison of regularly scheduled with as-needed use of albuterol in mild asthma. N Engl J Med 1996;335:841-7.
Doig GS, Simpson F, Heighes PT, Bellomo R, Chesher D, Caterson ID, et al. Restricted versus continued standard caloric intake during the management of refeeding syndrome in critically ill adults: a randomised, parallel-group, multicentre, single-blind controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Nov 16. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00418-X. [Epub ahead of print]
All co-authors should be listed unless there are more than seven authors, in which case the first six are listed, followed by “et al.".

2) Whole books
The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. Respiratory diseases. 1st ed. Seoul: Koon Ja Publishing, Inc.; 2004.
Light RW. Pleural diseases. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.

3) Book chapters
Ryu SH. Pulmonary vascular diseases. In: Han YC editor. Clinical pulmonology. Seoul: Ilchokak; 1990. p. 252-8.
McFadden ER Jr. Chapter 236. Asthma. In: Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Co, Inc.; 2005. p. 1508-16.

4) Electronic references
World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report 2015. WHO/HTM/TB/2015.22. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en [accessed 30 October 2015].

5) Other types of literature should be formatted are based on ‘Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers’.

• Tables

Tables should be concise. Use horizontal lines only. Number tables in the order in which they are mentioned in the main text, and refer to them in the text as follows:

--- is represented (Table 1). Table 2 represents ---

Place the title above the table, using sentence case. Below each table, provide a key to abbreviations and additional explanations if needed. Table footnotes should use these symbols: *, †, ‡, §,∥, ¶, **, †† and ‡‡.

BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage; ICU: intensive care unit;

NS: not significant.

*p<0.001. †p<0.05.

Tables and legends should provide enough detail that the study data can be understood without reference to the main text.

• Figures

Figures include graphs, line drawings and photographs. All figures in JPG (JPEG) or TIF (TIFF) format should be submitted separately from the main manuscript. Images should be clear, with resolution exceeding 300 dpi. Each figure should be accompanied by a number. It should be possible for readers to understand the figures without reference to the text. Number the figures in the order in which they are mentioned in the main text, and refer to them in the text as follows:

--- is shown (Figure 1). Figure 2 shows ---

If any images were not generated by the authors, this should be stated and the source provided.

The magnification ratios should not be written for the photos taken via light microscopy. However, the magnification ratios and the names of the special staining methods, and the magnification ratios of the photomicrographs of electron microscopy should be briefly noted.

B. Review Articles

Review articles are generally prepared in the same format as original articles, but the details of manuscript format may be flexible according to the contents. They are organized as follows: title page, abstract and keywords, introduction, body text, conclusion, conflict of interests, acknowledgments, references, tables, and figure legends. There should be an unstructured abstract equal to or less than 250 words. The length of the text excluding references, tables, and figures should not exceed 5,000 words, with up to 100 references.

C. Images of Interest

Original, high-quality images are considered for publication (subject to editing and abridgment). There should be no more than two figures and five authors and they should not exceed 300 words in total, with up to 10 references. An abstract is not required.

D. Editorials

Editorials are invited by the Editor-in-Chief and should be commentaries on original articles published in the same issue of the Journal. Editorials should not exceed 1,000 words (excluding references, tables, and figures) and contain no more than 15 references. An abstract is not required.

E. Letters to the Editor

Letter to the Editor concerning recent publications in the TRD will be published through review and approval by the editors when its scientific quality is acceptable and space in the TRD is available. A Letter to the Editor should be concise and no longer than 1,000 words. It should have a title, distinct from the title of the referenced article, an unstructured main content, and a list of references which should be no more than 10. Only one table or figure would be accepted. An abstract is not required.


All authors of accepted manuscripts must sign a copyright transfer form and email to katrdsubmit@lungkorea.org. A copyright transfer form is available at the TRD e-submission website, http://submit.e-trd.org.

Contact information

The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases

101-605 58, Banpodaero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06652, South Korea
Phone : +82-2-575-3825, +82-2-576-5347
Fax : +82-2-572-6683
E-mail : katrdsubmit@lungkorea.org
Website : www.lungkorea.org

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